qUOTATIONS

The positive thesis I favor states that it does not matter that there is no unitary and separate “normative ethics” because political philosophy is always in itself already praxis-orienting and potentially interventive. Even political philosophy that takes itself to be simply descriptive and enjoins abstention from action is already intervening, because taking any position at all is intervening.

 A legitimate ruler who has to perpetrate an immoral act to protect the lives and the liberty of the women and men who have entrusted upon him political authority is justifiable and even praiseworthy. By Christian standards he cannot be absolved, but the after-life of the soul is uncertain while present life of living individuals and the life and the liberty of future generations is certain.